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Here a scandal, there a scandal: More fodder for cartoonists

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Introduction:

Michèle Dagenais, Université de Montréal, 2007

After its re-election in 1872 the Conservative government of John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) launched a project to build a transcontinental railway to link all regions of Canada. In the West, British Columbia had demanded the railway as a condition of joining Confederation. Macdonald awarded the construction contract to the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), which stood to receive a $30,000,000 subsidy as well as 20,000 hectares of land.

However, in April 1873 the Liberal Party accused the prime minister of accepting $360,000 from Hugh Allan (1860-1951), a director of the CPR, shipping magnate and financier, to finance his election campaign. Macdonald denied the whole thing, but the bubble burst in July. The Liberal Party sent newspapers a copy of a telegram from Macdonald to Allan: "I must have another $10,000. Will be the last time of calling. Do not fail me. Answer today." Driven to the wall, the prime minister resigned on November 5, 1873.

The affair, known as the Pacific Scandal, revealed the extent to which business interests had infiltrated Canadian politics. It also launched the career of one of Canada's greatest cartoonists, J. W. Bengough (1851-1923), who took advantage of the scandal to found the satirical weekly newspaper Grip (1873-1894).

Echoes of this event sounded with the Sponsorship Scandal of 2004-2005. More than a century after the Conservative Party was found guilty of corruption, it was the federal Liberal Party that was called up on the stand. While in power the federal Liberals were accused of misdirecting public funds during an advertising campaign known as the Sponsorship Program. Launched in 1997, the campaign was intended to increase the visibility of the Canadian government in Quebec and to raise Canada's profile among Quebecers.

Hundreds of millions of dollars were distributed using ad agencies as intermediaries. The latter redirected a large chunk of what they received to the campaign coffers of the Liberal Party of Canada. The fraud, revealed during a 2004-2005 government inquiry, involved ad agencies as well as elected politicians and high-ranking federal civil servants. Although former prime minister Jean Chrétien (1934-) emerged unscathed, cartoonists skewered him, like they once had Macdonald.

These two examples show that some of Canada's leaders have committed fraud in the name of national unity. While claiming to be protecting the public interest, they served, by their deeds and actions, the private interests of their respective political parties. These cases illustrate the vulnerability of political institutions and the crucial role played by public opinion, through the revelations that came to light in the press and the public inquiries.


II-46604.2
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Sir John A. Macdonald, politician, Montreal, QC, 1877
Notman & Sandham
1877, 19th century
Silver salts on paper (glossy finish) - Gelatin silver process
15 x 10 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-46604.2
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The most famous Scot in the early history of the Canadian Pacific Railway, though not an officer of the company, was the inspiration behind the entire project. Sir John A. Macdonald, born in Glasgow in 1815, was brought to Canada at the age of five. Trained as a lawyer in Kingston, Ontario, he entered politics before his thirtieth birthday and remained active in political life from 1844 until his death in 1891. As leader of the opposition in the late 1870s, he formulated a "national policy" to win re-election and to push forward the development of the new Dominion of Canada. This policy involved the settlement of the Western prairies, the promotion of manufacturing in the east, and a trans-Canada railway to tie the country together. Becoming prime minister again in 1878, Macdonald quickly moved to charter the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.

What:

This is a photograph of Sir John Alexander Macdonald, first prime minister of Canada, from 1867 to 1873 and from 1878 to 1891.

Where:

The photograph was taken in eastern Canada in 1877. Nine years after it was made, Macdonald and his wife travelled for the first time over the new railway to the Pacific Ocean.

When:

The photograph was taken in 1877, a year before Macdonald succeeded in becoming prime minister again.

Who:

Macdonald was the political force behind the construction of the CPR. Without his backing, and the government's timely financial assistance, the railway might not have been completed.

MP-0000.25.984
© McCord Museum
Photograph, glass lantern slide
Pacific Great Eastern Railway trestle, Cheakamus River Canyon north of Squamish, BC, ca. 1920
Anonyme - Anonymous
About 1920, 20th century
Silver salts and transparent ink on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
8 x 10 cm
Gift of Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.25.984
© McCord Museum

M987.253.369
© McCord Museum
Print (photomechanical)
Map Showing the Canadian Pacific Railway
H. Belden Co. (Publisher - éditeur)
1881, 19th century
Ink and coloured ink on paper - Chromolithography
9.5 x 29.3 cm
Gift of Mr. Colin McMichael
M987.253.369
© McCord Museum

I-10825.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Hugh Allan, Montreal, QC, 1864
William Notman (1826-1891)
1864, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
8.5 x 5.6 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-10825.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Sir Hugh Allan (1810-1882), like so many of the important figures in the history of the CPR, was Scottish. Born in Saltcoats, Ayrshire, the son of a shipmaster, he immigrated to Canada in 1826 and made a fortune in shipping. By 1870 he was reputed to be the richest man in the country, and he was knighted in 1871. The next year the government of Sir John A. Macdonald awarded him a contract to build the railway to the Pacific Ocean, but the 1873 revelation that Allan had given Macdonald's party a large sum of money led to the "Pacific Scandal" and the defeat of Macdonald's government. Allan was shut out of the contracts when the CPR was eventually built.

What:

This steely-eyed gentleman is Sir Hugh Allan, the great Scottish-Canadian shipping magnate, photographed in Montreal, the headquarters of his commercial empire.

Where:

It is said that Ravenscrag, Sir Hugh Allan's great mansion in Montreal, was inspired by the country home of the Marquis of Lorne in Ayrshire, Scotland, also called Ravenscrag.

When:

The portrait was made in 1864 when Allan was fifty-four, seven years before his knighthood was conferred.

Who:

Allan is usually portrayed as the corrupt villain of the "Pacific Scandal" of 1873, but he was also a great pioneer in the field of transatlantic shipping.

M994X.5.273.68
© McCord Museum
Print
"After the Session; or, 'The Situation'"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.68
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

On the 2nd of April, 1873, Honorable L. S. Huntington, member for Shefford, from his place in the House, charged Sir John A. Macdonald with having corruptly sold to Sir Hugh Allan the charter of the proposed Canadian Pacific Railway, for a large sum of money, which had been used as a Ministerial Bribery Fund in the preceding General Election. Shortly after this, and before any decided enquiry had been made into the matter, Parliament was adjourned (on May 23rd) until the following 13th of August. The cartoon playfully suggests the feeling of the Opposition, represented by Hon. A. Mackenzie, towards the accused Ministry during the "vacation." (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, May 31st, 1873

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M994X.5.273.69
© McCord Museum
Print
"Canada's Laocoon"; or, Virgil on the Political situation
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.69
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

In 1873 Canadian newspapers were hot on the trail of a political scandal. In April the Liberals accused the Conservatives of corruption. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) was alleged to have pocketed a large amount of money from Hugh Allan (1810-1882), president of Canada Pacific Railway, to finance his 1872 election campaign. In exchange for this "bribe," Macdonald promised to award the CPR the contract to build the railway that would link Eastern Canada to British Columbia. In July several newspapers published proof of the allegations: a telegram from Macdonald begging Hugh Allan to send him money.

This cartoon from July 1873 draws an analogy between the events surrounding the Pacific Scandal and the tragic death of Laocoon, a figure from Greek mythology. Hugh Allan is the main character in the cartoon: Laocoon. In Virgil's epic poem "The Aeneid," Laocoon is a Trojan priest who infuriated Apollo and was strangled by snakes, along with his two sons. The Conservative Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and Francis Hincks (1807-1885), then minister of finance, are depicted here as Allan's "sons."

What:

The story accompanying the cartoon reads: "When lo! Two snakes (perhaps from the Yankee shore), together trail their folds across the floor, with precious scandals reared in front they wind, charge after charge, in long drawn length behind! While opposition benches cheer the while, and John A. smiles a very ghastly smile!- and - Everybody knows the rest!"

Where:

The cartoon was published in Toronto in the weekly satirical magazine, Grip. The magazine was launched in 1873 in the aftermath of the Pacific Scandal by the artist John Wilson Bengough (1851-1923).

When:

At the time that the cartoon was published, Macdonald's government and minister of finance, Francis Hincks, had not yet resigned.

Who:

Sir Hugh Allan is in the middle of the cartoon. Then Canada's most important entrepreneur, he had made a fortune as president of the Allan Lines, a transatlantic shipping company. Prime Minister Macdonald is standing on Allan's left, while Francis Hincks, minister of finance, is on his left.

M994X.5.273.70
© McCord Museum
Print
Will He Come to Grief ? The Thrilling Act now in the Ring of the Political Circus
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.70
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The legend of this cartoon sufficiently explains its import. The facetious occupation of the Clown had its analogue in the course pursued by the "Globe" during the "Scandal" excitement- an eager desire to see the hero of the business unseated. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, July 26th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.72
© McCord Museum
Print
"Isn't that a Dainty Dish to Set Before a King ?"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.72
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

A note here is perhaps superfluous. The faces of the "blackbirds" in the "pie" are those of Hon. M. Langevin, (a prominent member of the Macdonald Government), Sir Hugh Allan, James Beaty, Esq., (to represent the "Leader"), Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Francis Hincks, "Uncle Sam," and T. C. Patteson, Esq., (representing the "Mail" newspaper). On Messrs. Blake and Mackenzie devolved the task of presenting the savory dish before Parliament. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, August 9th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.73
© McCord Museum
Print
Whither Are We Drifting ?
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.73
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

In 1873 a major political scandal involving the government of John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) erupted in Canada. In August of that year a royal commission was set up to investigate it.

In one of his cartoons from that period, John Wilson Bengough (1851-1923) showed John A. Macdonald riding roughshod on Miss Canada, a character often used by cartoonists to represent this country. His arm lifted to heaven, Macdonald swears his hands are clean. He is claiming, in effect, that he didn't benefit personally from the money donated by shipping magnate Hugh Allan (1810-1882), president of Canada Pacific Railway, in exchange for the contract to build the transcontinental railway.

However, in this cartoon, Macdonald's palm is not "clean." Written on it are the words, "Send me another $10,000." The words were taken from a telegram sent by Macdonald to Allan, the most explicit proof of the allegations against Macdonald: "I must have another $10,000. Will be the last time of calling. Do not fail me. Answer today." The telegram was read in the House of Commons by the Opposition and published in newspapers.

What:

As the document in his hand reveals, "Prorogation and suppression of the investigation," Macdonald is trying to stall the investigation that Opposition MPs are calling for. He adjourned Parliament from August 3 to 13.

Where:

The cartoon was published in Toronto in the satirical magazine Grip on August 16, 1873. This was two days after a royal commission was launched to investigate the corruption charges against the government.

When:

When the Pacific Scandal broke in July 1873, John A. Macdonald claimed to have forgotten certain events. The cartoonist seems to be saying that his memory lapses were the result of his boozing, as symbolized by the bottle in Macdonald's suit pocket.

Who:

Miss Canada, under John A. Macdonald's foot, is accompanied by a beaver, the symbol of Canada associated with the fur trade.

M994X.5.273.74
© McCord Museum
Print
The Beauties of a Royal Commission "When Shall We Three Meet Again ?"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.74
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

On August 14,1873, a royal commission was set up to investigate the corruption charges brought against the Conservative government by Lucius Seth Huntington (1827-1886) in April. Huntington, a businessman, was then serving as the Liberal MP for the Eastern Townships in Quebec. The "Pacific Scandal" was in full swing.

A royal commission is an official investigation into a matter of public concern. At the federal level, Cabinet is responsible for setting up and defining the mandate and powers of royal commissions and naming the commissioners. Its conclusions are presented to Cabinet and the prime minister, who must then act on them. In general, royal commissions are seen by the public as prestigious and respectable.

This was not the case, however, for the royal commission of 1873, which had a very poor reputation. The commissioners appointed by the Conservative government of John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) were perceived as biased by newspaper editorialists and the public alike. In fact, Macdonald had insisted on the appointments of Antoine Polette (1807-1887), James Robert Gowan (1815-1909) and Charles Dewey Day (1806-1884) because he knew them and expected that they would be lenient toward his government. In the end, not only were they biased, but no legal position could be drawn from their conclusions. The commission's lack of credibility fanned public discontent and provided ammunition to opponents of the government. In November 1873, John A. Macdonald was forced to resign.

What:

By giving the judge, lawyer and accused the same traits, the cartoonist was implying that John A. Macdonald was both "judge and accused" because he had named his friends to lead the royal commission investigating the Pacific Scandal.

Where:

The cartoon appeared in Grip, a satirical magazine founded by the cartoonist John Wilson Bengough (1851-1923) after the Pacific Scandal broke.

When:

This cartoon was published on August 23,1873, nine days after the royal commission was launched.

Who:

Ironically, as this cartoon shows, the government of John A. Macdonald was still in power in August 1873 and would therefore not just receive the commission's report and recommendations but also have to implement some of them.

M994X.5.273.75
© McCord Museum
Print
Waiting for Huntington !
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.75
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Hon. Mr. Huntington refused to acknowledge the Royal Commission appointed by the accused Minister, and declined to submit his case before it. The motive imputed to him by the Conservative press for this refusal was fear, and in the eyes of his friends Sir John sustained the attitude represented in the cartoon. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, August 30th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.76
© McCord Museum
Print
The Irrepressible Showman. Barnum Wants to Buy the "Pacific Scandal"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.76
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The Pacific Scandal broke in April 1873 when it was revealed that Prime Minister John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) had accepted a large sum of money from Hugh Allan (1810-1882), president of the Canada Pacific Railway, to finance his 1872 election campaign. In July, Opposition MPs leaked telegrams and letters proving the allegations to the newspaper. They devoted a lot of ink to this scandal, turning it into a veritable "media circus."

That summer the famous circus founded by the American Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891), P.T. Barnum's Museum, Menagerie and Circus, known as "the greatest show on earth," was touring in Canada.

This cartoon underlines the absurdity of the whole situation. The artist imagines that Barnum, who was also much in the news, was so inspired by the scandal playing out in the "arena" of Canadian politics that he wanted to buy the rights to it. The cartoonist also pokes fun at himself by depicting his own magazine, Grip, under Barnum's big top.

What:

Barnum is shown at the side of Miss Canada, a character often used by cartoonists to symbolize this young country. She is accompanied by a beaver, the emblem of Canada reminiscent of the fur trade.

Where:

The cartoon was published in Toronto, in Grip. In this satirical magazine, which he had founded, John Wilson Bengough (1851-1923) published cartoons mocking the Pacific Scandal.

When:

The cartoon was published on September 13, 1873, less than one month before John A. Macdonald's government resigned.

Who:

A group of politicians is seen in front of Barnum. They include John A. Macdonald (with crossed arms) and members of his government such as James Beaty (1798-1892), as well as Opposition MPs such as Alexander Mackenzie (1822-1892), Edward Blake (1833-1912) and E. B. Wood (1820-1882).

M994X.5.273.77
© McCord Museum
Print
Blackwash and Whitewash. Illustrating the Recent Great Opposition Speeches, and the Doings of the Jolly Royal Commission
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.77
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

"Illustrating, " as the legend goes on to say, "the recent great Opposition speeches, and the doings of the jolly Royal Commission." The Reformers, of course, lost no opportunity of painting Sir John in grimy colors; while it was generally acknowledged that the Royal Commissioners and the Consrvative press did little more during the excitement than "whitewash" him. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, September 20th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.78
© McCord Museum
Print
"We in Canada Seem to Have Lost all Idea of Justice, Honor and Integrity." The Mail, 26th September
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.78
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

So said the "Mail", the leading Conservative organ, on September 26th. Grip sought to point this lugubrious confession with an illustration drawn from the topic of the hour. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, September 27th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.79
© McCord Museum
Print
"Progressing Favorably"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.79
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

A peep into the hearts of the Reform leaders during the interesting period of Sir John Macdonald's political "indisposition." The "Poor dear Premier" may be seen, if the reader will take the trouble to peer into the bedroom. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, October 4th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.80
© McCord Museum
Print
Rehearsing for the 23rd Instant
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.80
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Representing the spirit in which the Leaders of the respective parties approached what was expected to be the decisive date. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, October 11th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.81
© McCord Museum
Print
"Will He Get Through ?"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.81
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The question which was on all lips during the interim between the prorogation of the House of Commons on the 13th of August and the day fixed for its re-assembling, October 23rd. The prophecy conveyed in the unreasonable smallness of the hoop in the clown's hand was duly realized. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, October 18th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.83
© McCord Museum
Print
"Of Comfort No Man Speak; Let's Talk of Graves, of Worms, and Epitaphs !"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.83
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

"Of comfort no man speak;
Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaths!" -Shakespeare.

Typical of the overwhelming grief which seized the Conservative party on being turned out of office, after a reign of nearly twenty years.



(Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, November 1st, 1873

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M994X.5.273.84
© McCord Museum
Print
Miss Canada's School (Dedicated to the New Premier)
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.84
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

In 1873 the Pacific Scandal shook Canadian politics. John A. Macdonald (1815-1891), leader of the Conservative Party, had pocketed money from Hugh Allan (1810-1882) to finance his election campaign in exchange for the contract to build the transcontinental railway that would link British Columbia with Eastern Canada.

The scandal broke in April and proof of the allegations was published in newspapers in July. In August, a royal commission was set up by John A. Macdonald himself, but to its critics it completely lack credibility. In November Macdonald's government was forced to step down. Lord Dufferin (1826-1902), the governor general, then asked Alexander Mackenzie (1822-1892) to form a new government. This cartoon illustrates this event.

With Miss Canada (representing the young country) standing behind him, Lord Dufferin plays the role of a teacher leading a class of "students," most of whom are federal MPs. He warns Alexander Mackenzie that if he makes any mistakes he will meet the same fate as John A. Macdonald - he too will have to wear the dunce cap.

What:

The details in this cartoon refer to recent events. On the teacher's desk are pages bearing the words "Pacific Scandal" and "Resignation." On the wall we can read, "Moral Maxims. Honesty is the best policy. Never tell a lie. Tell the truth."

Where:

The cartoon was published in Toronto in Grip, a satirical weekly founded by the cartoonist John Wilson Bengough (1851-1923).

When:

This cartoon was published in November 1873 when Mackenzie was forming a new government and before he called the election of February 1874.

Who:

Among the men facing Lord Dufferin and Miss Canada are members of the new Liberal government such as Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie, Edward Blake (1833-1912), George Brown (1818-1880) and E. B. Wood (1820-1882). The Conservatives John A. Macdonald, Hector Louis Langevin (1826-1906), James Beaty (1798-1892) and Francis Hincks (1807-1885) are also shown.

M994X.5.273.88
© McCord Museum
Print
"The Political Giant-Killer; or, "Canada First"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
31.5 x 25.3 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.88
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The "Canada First" movement, having for its object the cultivation of a national sentiment and the extinction of political party strife, was inaugurated about this time. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, December 13th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.90
© McCord Museum
Print
"Christmas Pie"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.90
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The treat which Santa Claus had in store for the Reformers. (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, December 27th, 1873

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M994X.5.273.92
© McCord Museum
Print
The Cruel Object of "Dissolution"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.92
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Mr. Mackenzie and his colleagues advised the dissolution of Parliament on taking office. This was accordingly carried out, with the object, as the cartoon suggests, of keeping Sir John and his comrades "out in the cold." (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, January 10th, 1874

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M994X.5.273.104
© McCord Museum
Print
Pacific Pastimes; or, The Hard "Road to Travel"
John Wilson Bengough
1886, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photoengraving
25.3 x 31.5 cm
Gift of Dr. Raymond Boyer
M994X.5.273.104
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

The Reform Government took up the Pacific Railway scheme, but initiated a new policy with regard to it. Sir John Macdonald had pledged the country to complete the entire work within ten years. Mr. Mackenzie characterized this as a physical impossibility, and proposed, as the cartoon has it, "to tak' the distance in sensible like jumps, ye ken!" (Excerpt from: Bengough, John Wilson. A Caricature History of Canadian Politics: Events from the Union of 1841, as Illustrated by Cartoons from "Grip", and Various Other Sources. Toronto: The Grip Printing and Publishing Co, 1886.)

Cartoon originally published in Grip, May 16th, 1874

What:

Where:

When:

Who:


M993X.5.867
© McCord Museum
Print
Death to Bribery and Corruption, Life for Honesty and Integrity
G. Gascard
February 7,1874, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photolithography
40 x 28 cm
M993X.5.867
© McCord Museum

M982.530.5323
© McCord Museum
Print
British Columbia in a pet
Henri Julien
September 9,1876, 19th century
Ink on paper - Photolithography
39.2 x 28.4 cm
M982.530.5323
© McCord Museum

M994X.5.260
© McCord Museum
Print
The Quebec railway policy: "All aboard for the West!"
Henri Julien
December 18,1875, 19th century
Ink on newsprint - Photolithography
28.2 x 39.7 cm
M994X.5.260
© McCord Museum

M988.176.81
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Scandals
Aislin (alias Terry Mosher)
February 5, 1988, 20th century
Felt pen and ink on paper
22.2 x 24.7 cm
Gift of Mr. Terry Mosher
M988.176.81
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.127
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Sponsorship program neutralized separatists, according to Chrétien
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite and newsprint - Collage
Collage
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.127
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.157
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
$10,000-a-plate Liberal dinner: Please, guys, no cheques...
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite on paper - Collage
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.157
© McCord Museum

M2002.131.37
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Sport Supports Canadian Unity: Denis Coderre
Serge Chapleau
2001, 21st century
Graphite on paper
43.4 x 35.8 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2002.131.37
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.166
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Groupaction Photocopier: Three times more powerful!
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite on paper - Collage
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.166
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.54.1
© McCord Museum
Montage, cartoon
$550,000 paid for lost federal report
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Toner on paper - Computer graphic
29.7 x 42 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.54.1
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.108
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Reports galore!
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite on paper
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.108
© McCord Museum

M2005.166.44
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Chuck Guité arrested
Serge Chapleau
2004, 21st century
Graphite on paper
43.2 x 33.6 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2005.166.44
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.33.1
© McCord Museum
Montage, cartoon
Suivant, Next!
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Toner on paper - Computer graphic
29.7 x 42 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.33.1
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.130
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
My eight commandments, in triple copy...
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite on paper
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.130
© McCord Museum

M2005.166.41
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Sponsorship Scandal: the Oscar goes to Denis Coderre
Serge Chapleau
2004, 21st century
Graphite on paper
43.2 x 33.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2005.166.41
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.13.1
© McCord Museum
Montage, cartoon
Suburban delegates: Corruption? Not us...
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Toner on paper - Computer graphic
29.7 x 42 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.13.1
© McCord Museum

M2003.143.147
© McCord Museum
Drawing, cartoon
Greater transparency
Serge Chapleau
2002, 21st century
Graphite on paper - Collage
43.2 x 35.5 cm
Gift of M. Serge Chapleau
M2003.143.147
© McCord Museum

Conclusion:

Bibliography

Beauregard, Yves. " Les grands scandales politiques d'hier à aujourd'hui." Cap-aux-Diamants, special edition "Scandales," 83 (fall 2005) : p. 36-39.

Creighton, Donald. John A. Macdonald : The Old Chiefton. Volume II. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1998 (1955).

Dempsey, Hugh. The CPR West: The Iron Road and the Making of a Nation. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1984.


Finlay, J. L. and D. N. Sprague. "Scandal." In The Structure of Canadian History. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall, 4th edition, 1993, p. 204-205.

Innis, Harold Adams. A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.

"Le train des pères de la Confédération," Scandales dans les coulisses du pouvoir. Les Archives de Radio-Canada [online].
[ http://archives.radio-canada.ca/IDC-0-17-1692 11638/politique_economie/scandales_politiques/clip1] (page consulted April 30, 2007)

Stewart, Gordon, T. "Political Patronage under Macdonald and Laurier 1878-1911." American Review of Canadian Studies 10 (1980): p. 3-26.

Waite, P. B. Sir John A Macdonald. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1999.

Waite, P. B. "Pacific Scandal." The Canadian Encyclopedia [online].
[ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0006041](page consulted April 30, 2007)


© Musée McCord Museum