Brasser de grosses affaires : Le Canada, 1896-1919

Introduction5 précédentes
1993-437 MP-0000.2082.6 VIEW-17112 VIEW-4502 VIEW-21089 N-0000.25.261 MP-0000.840.11 m996x.2.512.1-2 Conclusion
 

Conclusion

Même si après la guerre en 1918, le Canada est devenu une société industrielle à part entière, certaines lacunes persistent. Le pays est engagé dans le commerce international, mais il ne peut bâtir ses propres navires. Il fabrique des chaudrons avec son propre aluminium, bâtit des gratte-ciel avec son propre acier et construit même des avions qui conviennent aux conditions du Nord. Le Canada a aussi sa classe d'hommes d'affaires, certains prospères, d'autres moins et d'autres encore qui rêvent de devenir lord Beaverbrook.

Cependant, l'année 1919 mettra en lumière l'aspect vulnérable du nouvel industrialisme canadien. Les marchés mondiaux connaissent une forte baisse et les tarifs de douane élevés qu'impose le pays ne peuvent soutenir la demande interne. Le chômage continue de sévir partout au pays jusqu'aux folles années 1920. Des conflits de travail minent l'industrie de l'acier au Cap Breton. La surcapacité nuit à l'industrie des pâtes et papier du centre du pays. Les disparités entre les régions industrielles commencent à se manifester. L'est et l'ouest se plaignent du fait que le centre du pays en contrôle le pouls industriel.

L'État ne peut pas faire grand-chose pour mettre un frein au ralentissement. Le Canada ne possède pas de mesure de contrôle efficace de la concurrence et des marchés boursiers. Les chômeurs doivent se débrouiller par eux-mêmes. Certaines entreprises font faillite et, à Ottawa, on réduit les dépenses. Le Canada découvre alors que l'industrialisation peut apporter à la fois l'abondance et la misère au pays.

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